Moore's law states that CPU transistor count will double every 18 months. As processors constantly increase in transistor count, chips will dissipate increasing amounts of heat. Now people are starting to increase the CPU voltage to aid their overclocking attempts and this also result in more heat.
According to KryoTech, between 1998 and 2000, the average watts of heat per CPU will increase from 70 watts to over a hundred. Heat hurts the performance of CMOS semiconductor chips. Without getting into how CMOS technology works, we'll just accept the fact that as transistors heat up beyond a certain point, performance degrades.
The converse is also true: performance increases as temperature decreases. KryoTech uses this CMOS semiconductor characteristic to build systems that are able to clock CPUs far beyond normal specifications.
Basically, KryoTech sticks a small fridge unit into the bottom of the case, and an insulated copper tube serves as the "thermal bus" between the CPU and the refrigeration unit. KryoTech uses the same refrigeration process used in home refrigeration systems: Phase Change Refrigeration. Here's KryoTech's explanation:
Phase change refrigeration is a closed loop process where a continuously circulating refrigerant is vaporized into a gas and then condensed back into a liquid. The phase change from liquid to gas creates an evaporative cooling effect as heat (the latent heat of evaporation) is lifted from the volume being cooled into the refrigerant as it changes state.
The refrigeration system consists of three main components: the evaporator, the compressor and the condenser. These components are connected together by tubing to form a closed system.… [T]he liquefied refrigerant is vaporized in the evaporator and heat is absorbed from the space being cooled. The vapor is drawn out of the evaporator by a motor-driven compressor and cooled back to a liquid state in an air-cooled condenser. From the condenser the refrigerant is pumped back to the evaporator where it is vaporized and the cycle begins again.
Phase change refrigeration is five times more effective than forced liquid cooling, and fifty times more effective than a heatsink and fan unit. The KryoTech Cool Athlon 800 system takes the CPU all the way down to a chilly -40°C.
More KryoTech Technology Information
We don't want to rehash all the KryoTech information we've already written about. You can read our previous KryoTech
review to learn more about the KryoTech technology.